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Mode and you may simple deviations (SD) have been computed to spell it out brand new test properties

Mode and you may simple deviations (SD) have been computed to spell it out brand new test properties

Analysis of gain scores, also called change scores or difference scores, was used to test for the effect of treatment; unpaired Student’s t-tests were used to compare the post- and pre-test difference in scores between the control and intervention groups (Allison, 1990; Ragosa, 1995; Oakes and Feldman, 2001). Since baseline differences between groups existed at pre-test, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was applied as an alternative to analyze the scores. We used the post-test gross motor and pre-literacy scores as the dependent variable, the control/intervention group as independent variable and the pre-test score as covariate. ANCOVA focuses on differences between the groups at post-test while holding constant pre-test differences. In all the analyses, the level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Statistics were performed by using STATA/MP 12.1.


On standard, CG and you will IG didn’t show one extreme differences (p > 0.05) with regards to gender, chronological years, lbs, height, Body mass index and disgusting motor character, due to the fact found into the Dining table 2.

After the experimental period, CG did not exhibit any significant difference in locomotor, object-control skills or QGMD scores. In contrast, the intervention group showed significant differences (p < 0.001) from baseline to post-test in gross motor skills. As shown in Figures 2, 3, locomotor, object-control skills and QGMD increased by 24.4%, 9.7%, and 10.4%, respectively, in IG. Moreover, the mean difference of QGMD between pre- and post-intervention in IG was significantly higher than that in CG (11.3 vs. 3.2, p = 0.0082). These results confirmed preliminary results previously reported (Battaglia et al., 2018). The same result occurred for the locomotor skills, showing a significant mean difference of 2.5 in IG compared to the 0.7 in CG (p = 0.0050). The analysis of covariance confirmed the positive effect of the intervention in the improvement of children's gross motor skills, starting even from different pre-test scores.

Figure 2. Score of gross motor development quotient in control and intervention group. ??? p < 0.01, compared with pre-test.

Figure 3. Score of locomotor and object control skills after 16 weeks of physical education program. ??? p < 0.01, compared with pre-test.

Desk step 3 screens that exact items of locomotor and you can target manage skills don’t upsurge in the fresh handle classification adopting the experimental months, while you are an incredibly extreme raise are present in every item in IG responding in order to PEP.

All of the pre-literacy enjoy significantly improved inside the IG following the intervention months, while in CG just the level of problems on naming regarding items rather diminished (find Desk 4). However, the latest analyses out-of get score and ANCOVA don’t show people extreme effect from the intervention between CG and you will IG.


This study investigated the effects of a specific PEP on the outcomes of fundamental motor and pre-literacy skills concerning visual analysis and spatial orientation abilities in a sample of preschool children from Palermo. Gross motor development was expressed as a composite score of a set of fundamental motor skills across the two gross motor skill domains. We observed a positive effect of PEP on gross motor development in the studied population. In particular, IG showed a significant increase in both locomotor (p < 0. These findings are consistent with those of previous studies that investigated the effect of PE on preschoolers' gross motor skills (Derri et al. For instance, Derri et al. Analysis of the covariance and gain scores confirmed the positive effect of our intervention in the rise of children's gross motor skills, even starting from different pre-test scores.

The aid of acquire ratings or ANCOVA has been mostly debated in earlier times throughout the study out-of pre-test/post-attempt models. Since the ANCOVA is suitable simply for randomized regulated trials and you can can bias causes low-similar groups or observational designs, the study out-of obtain ratings offers compatible, unbiased screening for the majority lookup patterns (Ragosa, 1995). In the absence mamba nedir of randomization, whenever baseline differences between communities exists, change-get models give smaller biased quotes (Allison, 1990). Predicated on QGMD score suggested by manual’s recommendations, we found that IG increased the brand new terrible engine abilities out-of average so you’re able to a lot more than average compared to CG, and that failed to tell you one associated changes. At the same time, the business of a single tutorial in several sandwich-phases (social-warm up, main, cool-down-feedback phase) is actually the ideal way to increase child’s contribution.

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